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(a battery being a collection of multiple cells) are a type of disposable battery or rechargeable battery dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese (IV) oxide (Zn/MnO2).

Compared with zinc-carbon batteries of the Leclanché or zinc chloride types, while all produce approximately 1.5 volts per cell, alkaline batteries have a higher energy density and longer shelf-life. Compared with silver-oxide batteries, which alkalines commonly compete against in button cells, they have lower energy density and shorter lifetimes but lower cost.

The alkaline battery gets its name because it has an alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide, as opposed to the acidic electrolyte of the zinc-carbon batteries which are offered in the same nominal voltages and physical size.